（信爱女子学院 情报社会学系，日本久留米 839-8508）
Virtual Presence for Education
(Department of Informatics and Social Studies，Kurume Shin-Ai Women College，Kurume839-8508，Japan)
Abstract: This paper discusses in detail the concept of Virtual Presence for education, and achieves this through examining the various terms of presence used in the distance education field. It is as exhaustive as can be done given the rapidly expanding field and development of telepresence technologies for learning including virtual worlds and augmented reality. The paper identifies and distinguishes among the terms institutional presence, learner presence, social presence, cognitive presence, transactional presence, and teaching practice. It covers in passing learning presence and teacher presence, internet / online presence, emotional presence, and absent presence. The key forms of presence are assigned to various stages of the four-stage transactional distance model as a framework of the learning process. The findings are rigorous and useful to understand virtual presence for education, when to use which type of presence, and why. Briefly, institutional presence covers most of the learning process, but not enveloping totally the student. Learner presence starts with social presence which comes into play early on for self-introductions and to reduce any anxieties to allow learning to begin, and cognitive presence takes over to tackle learning tasks. Once some structure is imposed by the Institution, then transactional presence develops to reduce structure and increase educative dialogue with the teaching presence coming in centrally to guide the learning process. These are clearly illustrated in figures showing their interrelationships, and ordering in the learning process. Teachers and students should find this meta-analysis effective and useful in their metacognitive understanding of learning.
Key words: presence；virtual presence；transactional distance mode